There are many characteristics to consider when choosing an infield glove vs an outfield glove.
Infielders have to make much more frequent plays that require an immediate catch and throw. Whether handling thrown balls from teammates or bullets off the bat, the infield glove has certain needs.
The shallow pocket is what gives it its pattern allowing for easier ball to hand transfers. A shallow pocket allows for the middle of the glove to be more accessible for the throwing hand to retrieve the ball out of the glove in an instant. This is due to the fact that the hand in the glove reaches the pocket, not the fingers of the glove.
Another recommendation is an open back for allowing the wrist more freedom to move on tough plays that may require something out of the matrix.
The webbing is also considered in the design process. Typically, it is big enough for dirt to pass through so transfers can proceed without a hitch. Each infield position can be slightly different with its needs.
Second base being the shallowest and smallest glove on the infield, shortstop falls a close second in size. Third base gloves are typically a slightly deeper pocket with more similarities to an outfield glove, simply because the speed of the game can outweigh the need to transfer the ball from glove to hand.
First basemen have the biggest glove on the infield. Generally called mitts, they are built with extra leather and much longer in length. The frequency of hard-hit and hard-thrown balls is what sets the bulletproof design apart.
Outfielders gloves have longer fingers than infielder’s gloves and are made with a much deeper pocket with one thing in mind - stability. The closed back also helps provide support from the wrist up the back of the hand to the finger tips for those insane shoestring catches.
Most outfielder's gloves also have a more closed web system to aid in its overall backbone. All three outfield positions require the same type of glove. There is no difference, just personal preference. The need for transferring on ground-balls or tagging runners is still attainable but not at the forefront in the design.
Outfielders don’t generally have time-sensitive plays so their gloves are built for balls staying in, not coming out. So, sprinkle in some personal preferences with the length, backing, or web design to make your infield or outfield glove your own.